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How pop culture “conlangs” like Dothraki and Klingon get made



“I amar prestar aen, han mathon ne nen, han mathon ne chae a han noston ned ’wilith.”

“The world has changed; I can feel it in the water, I can feel it in the earth; I can smell it in the air.”

—Galadriel, opening narration of The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (film), Sindarin Elvish

Time was, if you were creating a fantasy or sci-fi world in film or TV, you could simply make up some lines using sounds that English speakers didn’t hear much and get away with few people noticing or caring.

Now, if you want a truly immersive story, you need to hire someone to create not just one but several languages for your project, thoughtfully consider which scenes will and won’t use those languages, and make sure the actors you hire can sound convincing when they deliver lines in those languages.

The bigger shows and movies that use these constructed languages, or conlangs — your Game of Throneses, your Star Treks — may not seem like much of a trend in and of themselves. But there are also shows like The CW’s The 100, AMC’s Into the Badlands, and likely Amazon’s upcoming Lord of the Rings series; movies like Netflix’s Bright; and dozens of other productions in both the recent past and near future that feature at least a few lines spoken in a language created solely for their specific characters and worlds.

Conlangs are officially a Pop Culture Thing. Part of the deluge seems to stem from audiences’ never-ending quest for “authenticity,” the desire for meticulous televisual world building. And film and TV creators have adopted a similar mindset — a yearning for verisimilitude that extends all the way to shelling out to have new languages written, even as natural languages are disappearing at the rate of one every two weeks.

But when, and how, did we get here?

Conlang creation in Hollywood has exploded over the past decade

Zac Freeland/Vox; New Line Productions Inc.

While most people’s minds race to Star Trek’s Klingon when thinking of pop culture conlangs, the modern roots lie in J.R.R. Tolkien’s world of Middle-earth — specifically, the two different kinds of Elvish he began creating in the 1910s, and the histories he wrote to explain why there were two of them.

Still, conlangs had a long way to go before reaching their current level of permeation. Klingon, created in the 1980s by Star Trek producer Marc Okrand, was for a long time treated as a punchline, despite a devoted fan base and speakers.

Then the Lord of the Rings movies made billions of dollars and won Oscars in the early 2000s, showing that a nerdy element like a fictional tongue wasn’t exactly a turn-off for audiences — that a fully realized invented language, with a real grammar, syntax, and a vocabulary of thousands of words, could be an asset. The opening lines of the first film, The Fellowship of the Ring, were spoken in a conlang — as the royal elf Galadriel delivered a monologue partly in Sindarin Elvish — marking an important turning point.

David J. Peterson, who created Dothraki and Valyrian for Game of Thrones and has written two books on conlangs, also credits the box office success of 2004’s The Passion of the Christ, a movie entirely in Aramaic — not a conlang but a dead language unrecognizable to its audience.

Peterson’s theory is that The Passion, which grossed around $610 million worldwide, convinced Hollywood that audiences were more willing to sit through stretches of dialogue in unfamiliar languages than previously thought. “There was a sense of, not only will people tolerate this, but they will pay for it and enjoy it,” Peterson says.

Then came Avatar in 2009, with its fully realized Na’vi language, and Game of Thrones in 2011 with its khals and Valyrian-speaking priestesses. Suddenly, conlangs were a vital storytelling tool, judging by the 60 productions that have contacted Peterson to inquire about him creating one since Game of Thrones put him on the professional conlanging map.

But getting from “We should have a language made” to Khal Drogo’s blood-stirring Dothraki speeches is not simple.

Conlangs are key to building fictional worlds that feel real

Rockne S. O’Bannon was developing a show about aliens on Earth called Defiance when he realized that his series, which ran for three seasons on Syfy between in 2013 and 2015, needed a conlang. Actually, more than one: There were a few kinds of aliens in the world of Defiance, which required the creation of two languages right from the start, with more to follow.

”Verisimilitude was important to us,” O’Bannon says. “But I didn’t know anything about glottal stops or nasal consonants.”

Zac Freeland/Vox; Syfy

So he turned to Peterson — who definitely knows about glottal stops and nasal consonants — to create the languages needed for not just the show but also the massively multiplayer online game that took place in the same universe.

It’s an investment that O’Bannon doesn’t question at all. “You can’t leave it up to the actors to make up nonsense, because it also has to match what other people say,” he says. And it would wreck the show’s credibility to have aliens, even those who have been on Earth for decades, speak only English.

“A language never gets more real than when we speak it,” Peterson said in a 2013 TED talk. “If it’s used in a television show or a film, anybody can sit there, write down what’s said, and analyze it to see if it’s systematic, or if it’s just gibberish. … There is no ‘stage’ version of a language. To create an authentic-sounding language, one needs to employ an authentic methodology.”

How to create a conlang

Zac Freeland/Vox; 20th Century Fox

Peterson’s background was in linguistics; he has a master’s degree in the subject from UC San Diego. His path to conlanging for film and TV was paved in part by co-founding the Language Creation Society, a nonprofit organization composed of thousands of members that runs the world’s only international conference devoted solely to conlanging. Through this group, Peterson met Arika Okrent, author of the revered conlang tome In the Land of Invented Languages, who pointed the Game of Thrones showrunners in Peterson’s direction.

According to Peterson, David Benioff and D.B. Weiss originally had Dothraki characters speaking gibberish during the casting process; George R.R. Martin’s book series contained a few snippets of Dothraki, but Benioff and Weiss quickly realized there wasn’t enough to fill out entire scenes onscreen, and they couldn’t just make things up as they went along. They needed someone who could build off the books to create a real language.

From there, Peterson’s career was born. Today, he breathes the rarified air of conlangers with some fame, alongside Paul Frommer, the creator of Na’vi, and Okrent, creator of Klingon.

Peterson says he has a more or less standard language starter pack he charges for, then works with the production for as-needed translations. His rate can range from $500 for simple work to six figures for a fully developed language. (Creating a writing system is extra, but it’s also Peterson’s favorite thing to do.)

”If you just have some place names, you don’t need a whole language,” he says. “But if you’ve got so much as one whole clause? You need a whole language.”

That’s because a whole clause implies the existence of some kind of grammar. Writers need to know how the words should be ordered, and why. They need to know, at the very least, how the verbs are conjugated, whether the nouns change depending on their function in the sentence, and what the sound system is.

To create the Dothraki language, Peterson started by looking at the Dothraki culture as it’s presented in the Game of Thrones books, then began to “shape a lexicon that would represent it.”

The Dothraki are nomadic warriors who travel on horseback; the imagery is woven into the way they talk about all sorts of things. In the scene below, as Khal Drogo prepares for a fight, he calls his unborn child “the stallion who will mount the world” and refers to ships as “wooden horses” that ride across water:

Peterson has also drawn from the Dothraki culture to give the language its unique characteristics. Because the Dothraki language is oral, with no writing system, there’s no native word for “book.” They also lack a word for “thank you.”

These elements mimic the quirks of natural languages: Finnish has one genderless pronoun for the singular third person (whereas in English, we have “he” and “she”); Russian uses the same word for both “please” and “you’re welcome.” That doesn’t mean Finns are gender-blind, or that Russians can’t distinguish between asking for something and receiving it — but such differences can be indicative of what a culture emphasizes (or doesn’t).

Similarly, not having a native Dothraki word for “book” doesn’t mean that the Dothraki don’t understand books or the concept of reading. So Peterson had Dothraki “borrow” these words from another of Game of Thrones’ languages, High Valyrian, in keeping with the way natural languages borrow words all the time.

Peterson expands on that concept in this video, explaining how the culture behind a language can determine everything from the presence of specific words to how insults are conceived:

Once the language has been created, translation of a project’s script can begin. Typically, writers will write entirely in English and send the scenes requiring translation to Peterson — which sounds straightforward, but even that process can be hindered by writers who are looking for an exact, one-to-one rendering of the lines they’ve written.

“In English, we pack so much into each syllable,” Peterson says. “English speakers don’t understand this. So much is inferred or dropped.” Sentence lengths are going to be different, and there just isn’t going to be a word-to-word correlation, which can disrupt the rhythm and timing of a scene. Note the differences in length and rhythm between the English subtitles and the dialogue being spoken in this video:

For actors, learning to speak a conlang is like learning to speak any other language

Acting in a different language — particularly if you’re supposed to sound like a native speaker — can take some getting used to.

Adina Porter, who plays a leader of a group of people left on Earth after a nuclear apocalypse in The CW’s The 100, recalls panicking when being given a script in which her character speaks in Trigedasleng, the native language of her people. (Trig, as it’s often referred to, is another Peterson creation.)

”I didn’t know when I was cast that they were going to be creating another language,” she says. “I remember being quite shocked when I was up in Vancouver and being told, ‘We’re going to send you some words in the Grounder language.’”

A dialect coach can help a tongue-tied actor, though having one on hand is not a particularly common practice. Game of Thrones has one, but many other productions, including The 100, don’t. Dialect coach Erik Singer considers it essential, however — particularly in genres with fans whom we might call heavily engaged (i.e., quick to voice outrage over the smallest perceived error).

For Singer, while the bar for speaking a conlang correctly is perhaps slightly lower than, say, successfully faking a posh British accent, the goal is the same: to give an actor the ability to perform without consciously worrying about whether they’re getting the basic sounds right. Getting to that place can take months of work.

To help ease Defiance’s actors into their conlangs, O’Bannon would generally start off their characters with what he calls “handholds” — simple cultural terms, slang, insults — before dumping a bunch of conlang lines on them.

Zac Freeland/Vox; Paramount Pictures Corporation

“The other thing that made things maybe a little easier was making the dialogue in the language more emotional,” he adds. “The more emotionally charged or heightened, the easier it is to get an actor out of their own head. It’s easier to get the rhythm with real emotion or energy.”

Porter laughs, thinking of her initial panic: “It’s already kind of a scary thing, reading phonetics. And then to have to act with that?” But after she mastered the sound system and the particular musicality of Trig, Porter says she felt a deeper connection to her character.

”It did affect how I spoke English [while in character],” Porter says. “It became more formal” — the classroom, by-the-book kind of English you’d learn as a second language. Porter has even suggested, in certain scenes, that she say certain lines in Trig rather than English, as they’ve been written. That generally involves a phone call or frantic email to Peterson for a translation. Sometimes, Porter says, there just isn’t time, or the producer says it needs to be in English.

But in one case, she got her wish. “It was a banquet scene and we were under attack,” Porter recalls. “My character was calling out commands in English, and that just didn’t feel right. Trig is her birth language; her instinct would be to use that.” So producers pulled in Peterson and got the translation, and the scene ended up feeling a lot more natural — like an actual attack on unprepared characters.

Conlangs are a living, breathing art form that continue to evolve offscreen

The motivation behind any pop culture conlang comes down to wanting to tell the best version possible of a story. A conlang can also tie fans to the story more tightly, and offer a form of life and legacy beyond books or sequels.

But what happens when a conlang starts to find a foothold in the real world? Once a conlang is spoken by a dozen or more people, can its creator tell those speakers that the new words they’re adding are wrong?

Peterson does feel a sense of ownership over his creations, but he doesn’t take a prescriptivist approach. “Let’s say, for whatever reason, I was fired from Game of Thrones before the last season and they had a fan do the translation, and that fan added a bunch of words and maybe used the grammar differently,” he says. “Obviously, I would be upset for the lost income and respect, but in terms of the language, it would be up to fans who use the language to decide if the new material ‘counted’ as Valyrian or not.”

Zac Freeland/Vox; HBO

In other words: A language, more than any book or film or painting, is meant to be a living thing, a shared method of communication. Much of the beauty of language lies in how individual speakers bend its rules and make their own contributions, and all of these conlangs have shown they have lives outside their onscreen worlds. High Valyrian is now available on Duolingo. Star Trek fans have translated Hamlet into Klingon and staged productions. Na’vi speakers congregate at Avatar conventions. And Peterson is constantly fielding requests for translations from fans who want tattoos in Trigedasleng (from The 100) or Irathient (from Defiance).

It’s easy for fans to take conlangs for granted, too — Peterson often hears grumbling from Game of Thrones fans, in particular, who are irked by translations of certain prophecies from the books. But beneath every conlang lie complex layers of decision-making and craft. All so that you can mutter, “Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor,” when your boss asks you to work over the weekend (“A dragon is not a slave,” in Valyrian), and feel less like a put-upon cog and just a bit more like a khaleesi.

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Koalas Are on the Verge of Extinction, but You Can Adopt One and Help Save Them




Koalas, those adorable marsupials that have become a symbol of Australian biodiversity were recently declared “functionally extinct.” This means that there are so few of them that, according to an NGO dedicated to their conservation, koalas now have no influence on their ecosystem. However, there is still hope for these creatures and you can be a part of it.

Bright Side would like to welcome you to learn more about these adorable animals to understand why we should protect them from extinction.

1. Koalas aren’t bears.

Although they look like adorable teddy bears, in reality, koalas belong to the marsupial family, the same as kangaroos and opossums. Like other marsupials, when they’re born, koalas are as small as a bean and move to their mother’s pouch, where they complete their development.

Curious fact: In Australia, marsupial babies are known as “joeys.”

Although their fur looks spongy and soft, it is actually thick enough to protect them from cold and heat. The decrease in their population that took place until the last century was caused, to a great extent, by massive hunting to obtain their skin.

2. They can get very noisy.

The sounds they emit may not be as adorable as their appearance. According to experts, koalas have at least 4 types of calls to communicate, ranging from squawking and growling to weeping. In the video, we can hear a howl that they usually make when feeling threatened.

Males also have an extra pair of vocal cords outside the larynx that enables them to produce a deep and low pitched sound to attract female koalas during mating season. The sound travels through the woods and can be detected from as far as a kilometer away. Upon hearing it, females know where the males are and what size they are, since they prefer the bigger males.

3. They drink almost no water.

Their name means “not water” in the aboriginal language, because they obtain all the hydration they need from their main food: Eucalyptus leaves. Koalas only drink water when they’re sick or in case of a drought when the eucalyptus leaves are not watery enough. They may not drink much water, but they like it. They’re also good swimmers even though they can only swim short distances before feeling tired.

4. They are absolute sleepyheads.

Koalas sleep between 14 and 20 hours a day! Their digestion is extremely slow, so they tend to be inactive for long periods of time. Because of this and also because of their nocturnal habits, it’s often difficult to catch a glimpse of them. Also, during the few hours that they stay awake, koalas only socialize for an average of 15 minutes.

5. They have a special relationship with the eucalyptus tree.

Koalas consume more than 2 pounds of eucalyptus leaves per day, but it’s not just their food; eucalyptus forests are also their natural habitat. What’s interesting is that koalas also help these forests grow because their feces contribute nutrients to the soil.

Eucalyptus leaves also have substances that could be deadly for almost all animals, but koalas have evolved to be able to process these toxins. They’re even able to distinguish which leaves have more nutrients and are less toxic, as well as identify their moisture level.

Eucalyptus leaves are so poisonous that koala mothers make their babies used to these substances by using an interesting technique: When koalas are 2 months old, in addition to milk, moms feed the babies with a sort of liquid pap that comes directly from their digestive system and reaches the pouch. This “pap” is a softened version of the eucalyptus leaves and contains all the bacteria that the baby needs to digest the leaves as an adult.

But what may look like an evolutionary advantage is now their greatest vulnerability. Koalas depend solely on eucalyptus to feed themselves. The destruction of the woods due to the expansion of cities, the growing number of forest fires caused by climate change, and the greenhouse gases that decrease the amount of nutrients in the leaves are the central causes of koalas going extinct.

6. They’re vulnerable to chlamydia.

This sexually transmitted disease that afflicts humans can also affect koalas in the wild. Even joeys are at risk of getting infected after feeding on their mothers. Antibiotic treatments have been tested, but they caused the death of the bacteria that allows koalas to consume eucalyptus leaves. It put their lives at risk. Sadly, chlamydia can also cause blindness, infertility, and death, which contributes to the decline in their population.

7. They’re victims of car accidents and dog attacks.

To the list of koalas’ natural predators, which is pretty long, we need to add the highways that cross their forests and their proximity to people’s pets. There have been many car accidents that continue to decimate the population, although some measures have been taken to reduce the speed limit, primarily at night, when they’re active.

There have also been many encounters with dogs. Nevertheless, they can sometimes become genuine allies and work to protect them. This happened in a story showed in the news where a small orphaned joey took refuge on the back of a golden retriever to save himself from low temperatures, and the pup had no problem taking care of him all night.

What can we do for koalas?

The Australian Koala Foundation is the leading organization working toward the conservation of koalas. They have urged the country’s incoming government to protect these charismatic animals. The foundation has also prompted the administration to support them in their efforts, which include different strategies regarding education about koalas, the pressure to create laws to protect them, the tracking of the species within the territory, and many other actions.

Although it’s an animal that’s unique to Australia, the country has several nonprofit institutions that create worldwide campaigns to help them. If you want to offer some support, you can donate money directly, buy products, and even plant a eucalyptus tree at a distance. But the most fun part and the part that will melt your heart is that you can adopt a koala.

Yes, it would be a symbolic adoption, since you don’t get to take it home with you. But if you do this good deed, you will obtain a certificate with a picture of your koala, its name, and a short history about its life. Plus, if you travel to Australia, you can meet the koala you adopted if it’s available for visits, of course.

Koalas are one of the most distinctive animals of the Australian biodiversity, and substantial efforts are being made to prevent it from becoming just a memory of a species we couldn’t save from extinction.

Do you think koalas are adorable? How would you like to help with their conservation? Share your ideas in the comments!

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Special counsel Robert Mueller’s congressional testimony is set for July 17




After weeks of speculation about whether special counsel Robert Mueller would testify before Congress, House Judiciary Committee Chair Jerry Nadler (D-NY) and House Intelligence Committee Chair Adam Schiff have announced Mueller will appear in front of their committees in July.

On Tuesday night, Nadler announced Mueller had agreed to testify, after his committee and the House Permanent Select Committee issued subpoenas. Mueller will testify in open session on July 17, according to the chairs.

“We look forward to hearing his testimony, as do all Americans,” Schiff and Nadler’s statement reads. “Americans have demanded to hear directly from the Special Counsel so they can understand what he and his team examined, uncovered, and determined about Russia’s attack on our democracy, the Trump campaigns acceptance and use of that help, and President Trump and his associates’ obstruction of the investigation into that attack.”

But don’t expect too many bombshells from the special counsel’s testimony. Mueller has been very clear about what he will and will not talk about publicly in front of Congress: He will talk about what is already in his report on Russia’s meddling in the 2016 election and President Donald Trump’s alleged obstruction. He won’t talk about what he thinks about how Attorney General William Barr handled the report’s rollout, or anything else not in the report’s 448 pages.

“The report is my testimony,” Mueller said in a rare public statement last month. “I would not provide information beyond that which is already public in any appearance before Congress.”

House Democrats want Mueller to give more information. They are deeply suspicious of the way Barr and the Trump administration handled the Mueller report rollout this spring and want to hear Mueller’s side of the story. But Mueller, seemingly afraid of politicizing the report and his role in it, has clearly said he has no desire to speak on it.

Democrats had hoped Mueller would willingly agree to testify in front of Congress, but House Judiciary Committee chair Jerry Nadler also floated the option of subpoenaing the special counsel last month if Trump tried to claim executive privilege to block it. “We will subpoena him if we have to,” Nadler reiterated in a CNN interview earlier this month.

Given the fact Mueller said his decision not to testify was his and his alone, committee chairs were hesitant to take the step of subpoenaing him, but eventually chose to. Mueller was easier to persuade than Trump administration officials, many of whom have chosen to ignore Democratic subpoenas.

Even if Mueller can’t speak to anything beyond the report, Democrats believe his testimony will be valuable as they slowly and methodically mount their campaign of investigations against Trump. Whether it will ultimately lead to impeachment is another question entirely — one House Democrats don’t appear any closer to tackling.

Mueller believes Congress should hold Trump accountable

Twice — once in his report and once in his public statement — Mueller has said he believes Congress is the body that should decide whether Trump obstructed justice by attempting to stop the investigations into his 2016 campaign.

Even with plenty of evidence, Mueller explained why his team did not charge Trump for obstructing justice, saying long-standing Department of Justice policy prevented him from indicting a sitting president. And as Vox’s Andrew Prokop wrote, Mueller went a step further, concluding he couldn’t even state whether Trump had broken the law because “it would be unfair to the president, because the fact that he can’t be charged means he can’t clear his name with an acquittal at trial.”

Mueller instead punted a fix to Congress. After examining Congress’ role through the lens of separation of powers in the US Constitution and past court cases, Mueller concluded in his report that lawmakers are the ones with the authority to act in cases in which a president may have committed obstruction of justice.

“With respect to whether the President can be found to have obstructed justice by exercising his powers under Article II of the Constitution, we concluded that Congress has authority to prohibit a President’s corrupt use of his authority in order to protect the integrity of the administration of justice,” Mueller’s report reads.

He added this critical line: “The conclusion that Congress may apply obstruction laws to the President’s corrupt exercise of the powers of office accords with our constitutional system of checks and balances and the principle that no person is above the law.”

Mueller wrote that no person — not even the president of the United States — is above the law, and that the US Constitution doesn’t “categorically and permanently immunize a President for obstructing justice.” DOJ precedent effectively prevented Mueller from charging a sitting president but, as Prokop wrote, Mueller’s decision to investigate and lay out the potential for crimes and still not come to a conclusion one way or another sets another precedent for future presidents to act above the law — especially if they have confidence a politically split Congress won’t do anything about it.

Congress’s next steps will be critical because Mueller’s report explicitly states, “while this report does not conclude that the President committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him.”

Many Democrats viewed this as tantamount to an invitation to the House Judiciary Committee to open an impeachment inquiry — something House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and her top lieutenants have been hesitant to wade into. The Democratic leader has instead advocated for her party to continue investigating the president, even as a growing number of her caucus calls for an inquiry to be opened.

The number of calls for an inquiry grew even more after Mueller’s public statement. Even if he is simply talking about the already known conclusions of his report, there’s the potential to cause even more Democrats to back an inquiry.

The drumbeat on an impeachment inquiry is growing steadily, but whatever House Democrats do, it is a decision now out of Mueller’s hands.

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Tik Tok China Daily Trending Videos 20190602 抖音每日热门视频




#涂磊 Parenting and children’s 52 things Children’s Day, personally light your care! #摇音小助手(#涂磊育儿之和孩子的52件事 六一儿童节,亲手点亮你的小心愿!#抖音小助手) – 涂磊

Blame me… didn’t choose well… Hey! !(怪我了…没选好…唉!!) – A.燁煬(拳师犬阿卢)

This is quite fun(好好玩哦) – 陈乔恩

After 90, the old Timo will have to pass 6.1! I also sang a short paragraph of Deng Ziqi’s “The Devil from Heaven” #魔的天堂鬼# Today is a child(90后老提莫也要过6.1哼!我也唱一小段邓紫棋的《来自天堂的魔鬼》#来自天堂的魔鬼 #今天就做个孩子) – 冯提莫

200w powder thank you for giving you a peach blossom in the June 1st ~ Song pants is good for jumping this! I loved ~#original national wind plan(200w粉感谢❤️在六一给大家来一首桃花笑~宋裤好适合跳这个!我爱了~#原创国风计划) – Fofo酱

Is the June 6 unfair to me? ! ? ! Is my mom fake? !(六一节对我这么不公平吗?!?!我妈是假的吗?!) – 陈赫

Teacher Lang said: If a meal can’t be solved, then… two meals(浪老师说:如果一顿饭解决不了的,那就…….两顿) – 慕容瑞驰

Jie Ge, I forgive you.(杰哥我原谅你了) – 小沈阳

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For the history of urine, this last expression(为啥史尿多最后这个表情) – 哈K

Childhood is – will look at the rain like it grows up but will envy it so rain, 6.1 happy(童年就是——会像它一样看雨 长大却会羡慕它这样看雨,6.1快乐) – 十一

Don’t let her wear high heels when going out with friends, or you will be like me.(以后跟朋友出门千万不要让她穿高跟鞋,不然你就会像我一样) – 赵铁柱

The sneak shot of a man who is about to be a father. Are men all like this?(偷拍即将当爸爸的男人。男人是不是都是这样) – 娜娜有个别人家男友

The video was found out, and the tone was lowered. It was not shouted out. It was recorded once, and I was afraid of disturbing others. The certificate is a civilized dormitory.(视频呢找出来了,降调了,不是喊出来的,就录了一遍儿,怕打扰到别人。奖状是文明宿舍。) – 风浪才子

Eat a daughter-in-law’s mental weight loss and my action to lose weight … @ Zoo Band @音乐盒(吃货媳妇的精神减肥和我的行动减肥 …@动物园乐队 @音乐盒子) – Q朋克

Some of the Magic Fairy dialects that Grandma is learning on the way home, you guess who said it. I wish you all a happy day #六一儿童节#雨女无瓜(奶奶在回家的路上现学的一些魔仙堡方言,你们猜猜是谁说的。 祝大家六一快乐#六一儿童节 #雨女无瓜) – 淘气陈奶奶

What is this position? #邓超#Deng Chao Yinhe Tuition Class @摇音小助手(请问这是什么走位?#邓超 #邓超银河补习班 @抖音小助手) – 邓超工作室

On the Children’s Day, Children’s Day is so against me, should I endure it?(六一儿童节小歪居然这么对我,我该忍着么) – 开挂的猫二歪

Classmates, Happy Children’s Day! #Apple original camera #vlog日常#爱#六一 @摇音小助手(同学,六一快乐!#苹果原相机 #vlog日常 #爱情 #六一 @抖音小助手) – 土木一班姜同学

Happy Children’s Day(六一快樂) – 张庭

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